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Lantern slide gallery

Geographers’ Gaze project lantern slide gallery

Blencathra Mine or Saddleback, Lake District, England
Ladram stacks, looking towards Sidmouth, Devon
Bristol from Brandon Hill Park
Haymaking, Essex
Mousehole/Porthenys, Cornwall
Paddle steamer on the River Clyde, Scotland
Dover Harbour, Kent
Capstans on the shore, Deal, Kent
Aberglaslyn Pass/Bwlch Aberglaslyn, Snowdonia
Policeman in Holborn, London
Crowborough Heath Sandstone Quarry, East Sussex
Handfast Point and Old Harry Rocks, Dorset
Looe/Logh, South East Cornwall
Borth/Y Borth beach, Ceredigion
Crossing the Stile, Darley Dale, Derbyshire
Inverness/Inbhir Nis, Scottish Highlands
Ross-on-Wye/Rhosan ar Wy, Herefordshire
Flamborough Head, East Yorkshire
Ben Cruachan/Cruachna Beinne, Argyll & Bute
Staithes, North Yorkshire
Deep Cow Gulch and Île Agois, Jersey
Tilbury Docks, Essex
Dalveen Pass, Lowther Hills, Dumfriesshire
Sgùrr nan Gillean/Scuir-Na-Gillean, Isle of Skye
Stornoway/Steòrnabhagh cottage, Western Isles
Blencathra Mine or Saddleback, Lake District, England
Ladram stacks, looking towards Sidmouth, Devon
Bristol from Brandon Hill Park
Haymaking, Essex
Mousehole/Porthenys, Cornwall
Paddle steamer on the River Clyde, Scotland
Dover Harbour, Kent
Capstans on the shore, Deal, Kent
Aberglaslyn Pass/Bwlch Aberglaslyn, Snowdonia
Policeman in Holborn, London
Crowborough Heath Sandstone Quarry, East Sussex
Handfast Point and Old Harry Rocks, Dorset
Looe/Logh, South East Cornwall
Borth/Y Borth beach, Ceredigion
Crossing the Stile, Darley Dale, Derbyshire
Inverness/Inbhir Nis, Scottish Highlands
Ross-on-Wye/Rhosan ar Wy, Herefordshire
Flamborough Head, East Yorkshire
Ben Cruachan/Cruachna Beinne, Argyll & Bute
Staithes, North Yorkshire
Deep Cow Gulch and Île Agois, Jersey
Tilbury Docks, Essex
Dalveen Pass, Lowther Hills, Dumfriesshire
Sgùrr nan Gillean/Scuir-Na-Gillean, Isle of Skye
Stornoway/Steòrnabhagh cottage, Western Isles

Blencathra Mine or Saddleback, Lake District, England

Attributed to WL Turner, year not known This mine is situated on Blencathra (‘blain’ means top or summit; ‘cadeir’ means seat or chair – the summit is seat-like), a small range of fells rather than a single mountain summit, located in the Lake District. In common with the northern fells of the Lake District National Park, geologically Blencathra forms part of the Skiddaw Group of mudstones, siltstones and sandstones. Mines such as this one operated in the area to explore for minerals and ores including lead, limonite, copper and barite. By 1920, most of these mines and quarries had closed down and the area is now used for farming, forestry, tourism and outdoor recreation.
Student focus
  • Study the mine machinery in the image and explain, for example, what the large wheel and the wooden trough leading to it are being used for.
  • Why have lead, limonite, copper and barite become increasingly important? Describe what each mineral is used for today.
  • Carry out an internet search to discover whether the mine in this image was in the Glenderaterra Valley. Is the evidence conclusive?
Explore the nature of the geology of Blencathra on the BGS Geology of Britain Viewer. Current OS Explorer sheet: OL55 Click here to download the full resource The year of this image is not currently known, any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Ladram stacks, looking towards Sidmouth, Devon

Newton & Company, London, year not known The stack in the foreground of this image, called Ladram Rock, is one of a series of isolated stacks and stumps in the area (most of which only have local names). The cliffs here are composed of Sherwood Sandstone, but these particular stacks and stumps are composed of laminated Otter Sandstone. This Sandstone is especially hard and resistant to erosion, and contemporary photographs show limited signs of change. Ladram Bay attracts many tourists and is a popular place for families to visit. The Ladram Bay Holiday Park is sited on the slope down to the bay.
Student focus
  • The stacks and stumps at Ladram have eroded unevenly – what could account for this? Visit Wessex Coast Geology to investigate whether stacks and stumps are common on this stretch of coastline.
  • Explore the Ladram Bay Holiday Park website to find out more about the history of the site. What was the site’s original use? Why did this change? Would you like to stay there? Why/Why not?
Current OS Explorer sheet: 115 Click here to download the full resource The year of this image is not currently known, any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Bristol from Brandon Hill Park

George Washington Wilson, c. 1896

Brandon Hill Park lies between the districts of Clifton and Hotwells overlooking Bristol, and is named after the Irish Saint Brendan. The Park, given to the council in 1174 by the Earl of Gloucester, was used for grazing until 1625 when it became a public open space. The lower slopes of the hill were developed during the 18th and 19th centuries. The prominent landmark, Cabot Tower, was opened at this location a year after this photograph was taken. Popular for public meetings and taking in the views, Brandon Hill Park retains its Victorian layout.
Student focus
  • Why does the path curve across the grass rather than being straight? What does this tell you about the people who have visited the park in the past? Why was Cabot’s Tower built here?
  • Find a modern view of Bristol from Brandon Hill Park (e.g. Visit Bristol) and annotate a copy of this image with the buildings that can still be seen from this viewpoint.
  Current OS Explorer sheet: OL155 Click here to download the full resource

Haymaking, Essex

Attributed to Fairgrieve, c.1930 This image shows haymaking on a farm in Essex. In the 1930s agriculture was labour-intensive because much of the work was carried out by hand. Here, several men are using pitchforks or similar tools to transfer the hay from a wagon onto a large hayrick or haystack. Hay was cut and dried in the fields before being transported in horse-drawn wagons to the farm yard. It was stored as stacks until it was required for cattle fodder during the winter months when feed was short. The tarpaulin spread out in the foreground will be used to cover the finished haystack and then tied down with ropes and weighted with heavy stones to keep water and air out. Some farms thatched their haystacks.
Student focus
  • Prepare a PowerPoint presentation showing changes to agricultural practices from the early 19th century onwards. Use images of farm labourers from Great British Life and paintings (e.g. by John Constable) as a start point.
  • In Britain, as Thatchinginfo.com indicates, farmers built (and thatched/covered) different shapes and types of hayricks/stacks. On an outline map of Britain, mark and annotate areas with different rick building practices.
  • Think about the ways in which hay is stored on farms now, are modern storage methods more environmentally friendly than past ones? Why/why not?
  Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Mousehole/Porthenys, Cornwall

Fairgrieve, c. 1930

The photograph shows the small harbour at Mousehole in Cornwall with the village clustered around it and the small port filled with mainly clinker built sailing boats at low tide. An islet called St Clement’s Isle lies 350 metres offshore. The picturesque nature of the village has had both positive and negative effects. Particularly in the summer it is overcrowded on most days with holidaymakers and tourists. Fishing for pilchards has always been important to this small village.
Student focus
  • Visit Cornwall has information about Mousehole heritage walks on ‘Wrecks, lifesaving and lifeboats’ and ‘Village history’. Is the focus of the walks a positive thing for visitors to Mousehole? Why/Why not? What positive and negative effects might these walks have on the village itself?
  • In the past, pilchard oil lamps were used to light the cottages in Mousehole. What do you think pilchards caught today are used for? Give reasons for this change of use.
  Current OS Explorer Sheet: 102 Click here to download the full resource

Paddle steamer on the River Clyde, Scotland

Fairgrieve, c. 1930s

The paddle steamer in this image is probably travelling from Glasgow to Rothesay (and stopping at other towns en route) – a journey known locally as ‘going doon the watter’. The Clyde paddle steamers (PS) began sailing in August 1812 with a commercial service to Europe. By 1900 there were over 300 steamers, some of which operated until the early 1960s. This service was aimed at holiday makers taking people from Glasgow to Largs, Cambelltown and Inveraray, but as the demand grew Glasgow, Dunoon and Rothesay all became major resorts served by these steamers. The Clyde paddle steamers were used in the evacuation of Dunkirk during the Second World War, and the PS Waverley (built in 1946) still operates around the British coast.
Student focus
  • Paddle steamers like these are still important – why?
  • Access Waverley Excursions to find out if the PS Waverley steams from a port near you. Plan your itinerary. How would you get there? Where would you board/disembark? What might you see?
  • Find out what other routes became available to enable holiday makers to get from Glasgow to Dunoon and Rothesay.
Current OS Explorer Sheet: 342 Click here to download the full resource

Dover Harbour, Kent

York & Son Photographers, 1893

The photograph shows the inner and outer harbours of Dover in 1893. Different types and sizes of ships are moored in the harbour: sailing ships, steam powered ships, some with a combination of steam and sail, and smaller boats. Sheltered from the sea, Dover Harbour is a point of entry to the UK for many people, along with another port linked with the Cinque Ports (see slides 5 and 8). This modern-day purpose-built ferry port now offers a number of crossings to locations within the EU. The warehouses clearly visible along the quay would be used to store supplies for ships and their crews.
Student focus
  • In your opinion are sailing ships a more sustainable and economical alternative to modern engine-driven ships? What are the advantages and disadvantages of sail and engine driven ships?
  • Storage warehouses are now less common in port areas. Why might this change have occurred? Visit DoverBigLocal for innovative uses for old warehouses. What other ways could they be used?
Current OS Explorer Sheet: 138 Click here to download the full resource

Capstans on the shore, Deal, Kent

Photographer not known, c. 1930

The children in this image are looking at and discussing the capstans anchored to the shore at Deal in Kent (as well as at the photographer). Boatmen used capstans to haul their boats up beaches beyond the range of the tides. Traditionally, the boats on the Deal shoreline were locally-built ‘luggers’ – clinker-built boats with three masts. Deal, one of the Cinque Ports, is close to the notorious Goodwin Sands, which meant this stretch the coast was a place both for shelter and of danger for ships. Ships would wait off the coast for a ‘good wind’ and, during this time, the Deal boatmen would row out to provision the waiting crews.
Student focus
  • Draw and annotate a diagram showing how capstans were powered in the late 19th century. Describe how capstans are powered now. An internet search will help you discover what happened to the Deal capstans.
  • Investigate the Cinque Ports website then, in your own words, explain the role of Deal and other ports in the south east played in military history.
  • Compare an historical image of Deal (e.g. Skardon’s World) with an image of the shoreline today (e.g. Kent News).
Current OS Explorer Sheet: 138 Click here to download the full resource The photographer is not currently known, any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Aberglaslyn Pass/Bwlch Aberglaslyn, Snowdonia

Photographer and year not known

The Aberglaslyn Pass/Bwlch Glaslyn (‘aber’ means river mouth; ‘bwlch’ means pass) is a narrow gorge in Snowdonia (north Wales), and a popular tourist route. In this image, the road (A498/A4085) follows the bank of the Afon Glaslyn (River Glaslyn). At one time, the Afon Glaslyn – shown meandering through a relatively flat floodplain – was navigable by small boats. To the right by the road in the background, there is evidence that the Afon Glaslyn has undercut its bank. While the steep scree-covered slopes in the foreground show little evidence of vegetation, some of the less steep slopes are tree covered.
Student focus
  • What types of land uses can you identify in the image? What type of associated jobs might you find in this area in the 1930s?
  • Find the Aberglaslyn Pass on the OS OL17 sheet and identify the place where the photographer stood. Study the map key and describe the different types of tourism that take place in the area now.
Current OS Explorer Sheet: OL17 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Policeman in Holborn, London

Fairgrieve, c. 1926

This image was taken at the junction of High Holborn and Southampton Row near the present-day Holborn underground station in London. The policeman standing in the road is on ‘point duty’; note the nature and quantity of the traffic he is directing. Nowadays the traffic at this junction is very busy. The large shop is typical for the 1920s: it is on a corner and has separate entrances for different departments. Often each department would sell specific goods under the ownership of one firm. The large windows have blinds, which protect the goods on display from the bright sunlight.
Student focus
  • Use Google Maps to locate the junction, then access Street View to find the building in the image. Which architectural clues did you use?
  • Describe the main advantages for locating a shop on a corner. What evidence is there that the 1926 shop has only one floor of retail space? Carry out an internet search to discover more about what might have been sold here.
  • List six changes that have taken place in retail in towns and cities since 1926. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each one?
Current OS Explorer Sheet: 173 Click here to download the full resource

Crowborough Heath Sandstone Quarry, East Sussex

Photographer and year not known

This is a relatively shallow, small quarry at Crowborough Heath in Sussex. Here the quarrymen are extracting chunks of stone using simple, non-motorised equipment. The massive, thick-bedded fine to medium grained quartz sandstone found here is sometimes called Tunbridge Wells Sandstone because Crowborough is 11 km from Royal Tunbridge Wells. Much of this area of the Weald is now a protected Area of Beauty Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) and ecological importance. AA Milne used it as the setting for Winnie the Pooh stories.
Student focus
  • Describe how the equipment in the quarry (the wooden triangular structures are called shear legs) is being used. How do the quarrymen cut the sandstone? How do they transport it?
  • What kind of equipment would you expect to see in a modern quarry environment? (Carry out an internet search if necessary.)
  • Is the use of sandstone in construction a sustainable use? Think of its use compared with other materials used in construction.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 136 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Handfast Point and Old Harry Rocks, Dorset

SHR, 1912

Handfast Point and the Old Harry Rocks shown in this photograph feature in many geography textbooks as an example of the stages of erosion of a headland. This chalk headland, which formed with bands of flint about 66 million years ago, is being slowly eroded. The sea gradually works along the joints and bedding planes, where softer chalk meets harder bedrock, and enlarges them leaving behind stacks, wave-cut caves and notches in the base of the cliffs (sub-aerial weathering also plays a part in this process). Old Harry, a sea stack, is slowly being removed by these coastal erosion processes and sub-aerial weathering. Another stump – called Old Harry’s wife – disappeared in 1509.
Student focus
  • Why has the cliff been eroded at these specific points and not others? Which area is most prone to erosion and why?
  • On a recent image of Old Harry Rocks, identify further changes. If none are visible, what does it tell you about the nature of this coast?
  • These kinds of cliffs, caves and stacks often attract tourists – see slide 2. Use Digimap to identify where other named features are located around the British coastline and the BGS Geology of Britain Viewer find out what type of rock they are made of.
Current OS Explorer sheet: OL15 Click here to download the full resource

Looe/Logh, South East Cornwall

Valentine & Sons series (JV), 1894

The photograph shows the town of Looe/Logh (‘logh’ means deep water inlet) in south east Cornwall. Originally, a small fishing village, Looe now attracts tourists and retirees. The breakwater protects both a small beach and the outlet to the River Looe. Some sailing boats are lying outside the harbour, and offshore, just visible on the left-hand side of the horizon, is Looe Island. The town has built up on both sides of a steep-sided valley. The two parts are linked by a bridge (not shown). Many of the houses are constructed of local stone although the more recent ones are made of brick. Looe town is crowded with small houses, shops, services and tourist facilities. Traffic congestion is a huge problem in Looe, especially in the tourist season.
Student focus
  • Few of the inhabitants of Looe rely on fishing now, most work in tourism and some income comes from people who retire to the town. In your opinion, is this balance of economic activity good or bad for Looe?
  • Explore the Visit Looe website to discover how tourist traffic is managed, while making the town accessible to local residents and the emergency services. What problems might this solution cause?
Current OS Explorer sheet: 107 Click here to download the full resource

Borth/Y Borth beach, Ceredigion

Photographer and date not known

Look carefully at this image of the small seaside resort of Borth/Y Borth and you can see the stumps of a submerged forest. This forest, which is visible at low tide, dates from 1500 BCE. In April 2019, more stumps were exposed by Storm Hannah. This stretch of coast line (Borth is situated 11 km north of Aberystwyth) is exposed and prone to erosion. In the image groynes have been installed to mitigate against sand migration and a rudimentary sea wall, constructed of wooden planks, was built to protect the sea-front houses. In 2011, a coastal protection scheme between Borth and Ynyslas (2 km to the north) was constructed.
Student focus
  • Draw an outline plan of Borth sea front and beach area. Mark the different types of coastal protection and other features that are visible in this image and annotate them.
  • Produce a table listing the types of coastal protection measures that might be appropriate for this coast line and outline the costs and benefits of each one.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 213 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Crossing the Stile, Darley Dale, Derbyshire

Photographer not known, c1930

In this image two ladies, wearing their ‘Sunday best’, are crossing a stile in a dry stone wall in Darley Dale. This Dale lies within an area often referred to as the ‘White Peak’ because of its underlying geology. Fields in this part of the Peak District National Park are divided by walls made using the pale stone. Notice the ladies’ clothing, particularly their decorated hats. Perhaps they are on their way to church around May Day? Or attending a well dressing ceremony during August or September.
Student focus
  • Think about the ladies – where do you think they are going? What clues are there in the image about the route they are using? Consider who may have built the stile the ladies are passing through and why.
  • Give three reasons why dry stone walls are so common in Britain. Use the BGS Geology of Britain Viewer to establish the type of rock in this image and/or for a dry stone wall in your area.
  • Use the well dressing website and the OS OL1 and OL24 sheets to investigate the extent of this form of celebration in Derbyshire. Why do you think these kinds of ceremonies are important in rural areas?
Current OS Explorer sheet: OL24 Click here to download the full resource The location of this image, and the identity of the photographer are not currently known - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Inverness/Inbhir Nis, Scottish Highlands

George Washington Wilson, 1904

This image shows Inverness/Inbhir Nis from its castle (‘inbhir’ means river mouth; ‘nis’ means headland or promontory). The city (designated in 2000) occupies both sides of the river. The River Ness flows through the Great Glen from Loch Ness, through the city and on into the Moray Firth. Two bridges over the River Ness are visible here, but one has been replaced and new ones built since this photograph was taken.
Student focus
  • There are advantages and disadvantages to living in a city that is divided by a major river. List as many as you can.
  • Compare a recent photograph of Inverness (e.g. Scotland-Inverness) with this one. Identify the churches and other buildings that appear in both images.
  • Since this photograph was taken, one bridge has been replaced. Historic maps (try Digimap) will help you to identify which one. Use OS sheet 406 to identify how many bridges are there in total now.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 406 Click here to download the full resource

Ross-on-Wye/Rhosan ar Wy, Herefordshire

Photographer and date not known

In the view of the river near Ross-on-Wye/Rhosan ar Wy, the Wye has doubled back on itself forming a horseshoe, which is in fact a huge meander. This is caused partly by the differential in rates of erosion and deposition. The outside bank of the river erodes quicker than the inside, as it does so the river deposits material on the inside bend. Eventually, the river will create a new channel and cut off the bend forming an ox-bow lake. The repetition of this process causes rivers to migrate down valleys over time.
Student focus
  • The houses in the foreground have been built close to the meander – the Visit Ross on Wye town map indicates just how close. In your opinion would the town be in any danger as a result of this river process? How might the town protect itself?
  • Study the course of the River Wye on Digimap to identify any ox-bow lakes that have formed along it. Explain how these features show that the river has migrated down the valley over time.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 189 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Flamborough Head, East Yorkshire

Wrench & Son, c. 1896

This view of one of the bays and cliffs at Flamborough Head in the East Riding of Yorkshire also takes in a number of associated coastal features. These include the wave-cut platform, a bay-head beach, cliffs, wave-cut notches, stacks and stumps, and geos. If you look closely, you can see how different parts of the cliff has been eroded at different rates. This is because Flamborough cliffs are composed of Chalk (Limestone), which is a hard, but well-jointed rock, on which a layer of material called glacial till lies. This glacial till (or boulder clay) is much easier to erode.
Student focus
  • Estimate the different slope angles for the chalk and the boulder clay and describe how these materials are eroded.
  • Draw a sketch map of the photograph and mark on it as many features as you can (refer to OS sheet 301 if necessary).
Current OS Explorer sheet: 301 Click here to download the full resource

Ben Cruachan/Cruachna Beinne, Argyll & Bute

Fairgrieve, c. 1930s

This photograph shows two climbers making their way up a partially snow-covered ridge towards the peak of Ben Cruachan/Cruachna Beinne. At 1126m, Ben Cruachan is the highest point in Argyle & Bute, in a ring of glaciated peaks known as the ‘Cruachan Horseshoe’. The horseshoe surrounds the present-day Cruachan dam and pumped storage scheme and includes several other Scottish ‘Munros’. This mountain landscape has very little soil or vegetation, and there are a number of ‘frost pockets’. Like most mountains, Ben Cruachan is subject to increased erosion by rock climbers and walkers.
Student focus
  • What other glacial features might you expect to see in this landscape? List them together with short descriptions.
  • Use the OS Explorer sheet 377 to plan a route to explore the Cruachan Horseshoe and the Cruachan pumped storage scheme.
  • Explore more about the Scottish Munros (Visit Scotland) and/or how frost pockets form.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 377 Click here to download the full resource

Staithes, North Yorkshire

George Washington Wilson, c.1896

The photograph shows the village of Staithes, which has a sheltered harbour bounded by high cliffs and two long breakwaters (not seen on the photograph). This traditional fishing village lies the border of two boroughs. The area to the north (the left of the image) of Staithes Beck, Cowbar, is in Redcar and Cleveland; while the main part of Staithes (to the south of the Beck, right of the image) is in the borough of Scarborough. Staithes Beck, which is crossed by a footbridge, is fed by Easington and Roxby becks. A few small fishing boats can be seen tied up along the Beck. Alum, mined at Boulby Cliff (2.5 km to the north), was originally transported to Staithes harbour for export. The surrounding geology of Lias was formed during the Jurassic Period, and, in the 1900s, a fossil of a seagoing dinosaur was found between Staithes and Port Mulgrave.
Student focus
  • Find out what Alum was/is used for. Is this use sustainable? Why/Why not?
  • The fossil of a seagoing dinosaur was found near Staithes, and visitors to the area often search for fossils in the cliffs. Carry out an internet search to discover what other kinds of fossils have been found in the area and where.
Current OS Explorer sheet: OL27 Click here to download the full resource

Deep Cow Gulch and Île Agois, Jersey

Flatters & Garnett Collection, c.1899

The photograph shows Deep Cow Gulch and the Île Agois, which lies off the north coast of Jersey. It is not obvious from this image, but the stack (or Île) on the left is in the process of isolating from the mainland on the right and is currently connected by a narrow stone bridge. The stack was formed out of granite and large rocks can be seen on the valley floor. Two people stand at different distances from the photographer to give us some idea of the scale of this massive feature.
Student focus
  • Prepare a PowerPoint presentation explaining the formation of this feature include diagrams and/or images. Why is Deep Cow Gulch so narrow with such steep sides?
  • The Île Agois is no longer accessible and there is no direct access to the stack. Why might people have been prohibited from visiting the stack?
Click here to download the full resource

Tilbury Docks, Essex

Fairgrieve, c. 1930

Tilbury is a deep water dock on the north bank of the Thames near to the river’s mouth in Essex. It is now the major port in London. In the foreground of this photograph a number of large barges, which have been used to bring goods down the Thames to Tilbury Docks, are lined up ready to transfer their cargo. Dock-side sheds and cranes line the quayside. The Orient Lines ship tied up alongside the quay, was one of five that transported both goods and passengers between Britain and Australia in the early to mid-20th century. They were the forerunners of today’s cruise ships.
Student focus
  • Produce a timeline to illustrate the changes to the docks at Tilbury – Forth Ports is a good start point.
  • Map the countries of origin/destination of goods transported by an Orient Line ship and that of a current cargo ship. Do any patterns emerge?
  • Describe how ports like Tilbury handle/d goods in the 1930s and now. To what extent has this system transformed the movement of goods by sea? What have the key advantages been? Which recent event(s) have revealed vulnerabilities in this system?
Current OS Explorer sheet: 163 Click here to download the full resource

Dalveen Pass, Lowther Hills, Dumfriesshire

Fairgrieve, c.1930s

The Dalveen Pass cuts through the Lowther Hills connecting Nitherdale and Dumfriesshire with Clydesdale in Lanarkshire. The Hills form the watershed between the Clyde and Solway rivers. Parts of this 24-km long route was once a Roman road, now the Pass is followed by the A702. Here, the valley has steep sides and a flat floor with a stream flowing through it. On the right of the image there is evidence of erosion, and on the left some scree (or alluvial slip-off slopes) are visible. Also the gash eroded into the mountain on the right-hand side has an outflow fan (or deltaic) feature.
Student focus
  • What evidence is there that this area of the Pass is tidal?
  • Draw a sketch of the photograph, mark on and label the two distinct areas. Draw in the stream and indicate its meandering nature.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 313 Click here to download the full resource

Sgùrr nan Gillean/Scuir-Na-Gillean, Isle of Skye

George Washington Wilson, 1877/1904

The photograph shows Sgùrr nan Gillean/Scuir-na-Gillean – a peak in the Black Cuillin range on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. At 966.1 m (3170 ft), Sgùrr nan Gillean is one of eleven Munros in the range. Sgùrr nan Gillean has a typical glaciated triangular form, and a rocky river bed can be seen in the foreground. The Cuillin Ridge is the remains of the roots of an early Palaeogene volcanic centre composed of gabbros and granites. The area is very popular with climbers.
Student focus
  • The Cuillins are some of the oldest rocks in Britain – create a fact file about the Cuillin range. The BGS Geology of Britain Viewer is a good start point.
  • Sketch the photograph and mark the four distinct areas on it. Add annotations with the details of each area and say how they differ.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 411 Click here to download the full resource

Stornoway/Steòrnabhagh cottage, Western Isles

Photographer and year not known

This small cottage near Stornoway/Steòrnabhagh in the Western Isles, Scotland, is a typical crofters’ house. The cottage is constructed of stone, has a chimney at each end and a thickly thatched roof. There are two larger windows facing the track/road and a smaller one at the side in the gable end. Inside there would have been two main rooms downstairs and one smaller room in the roof space. To the left of the cottage a stack of peat has been left to dry. Dried peat is still an important fuel in remote areas of Britain, it is used to heat homes and for cooking.
Student focus
  • What type of work people and communities living in these areas do?
  • Between Islands illustrates how peat is cut, turned and left to dry before it can be used. In your opinion is the use of peat as a fuel sustainable? Why/Why not?
  • Evaluate the projects on Community Energy Scotland and decide which one is most environmentally-friendly and/or more sustainable. Give reasons for your choice.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 459 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received, including an idea of location relative to the centre of Stornoway. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Blencathra Mine or Saddleback, Lake District, England

Attributed to WL Turner, year not known This mine is situated on Blencathra (‘blain’ means top or summit; ‘cadeir’ means seat or chair – the summit is seat-like), a small range of fells rather than a single mountain summit, located in the Lake District. In common with the northern fells of the Lake District National Park, geologically Blencathra forms part of the Skiddaw Group of mudstones, siltstones and sandstones. Mines such as this one operated in the area to explore for minerals and ores including lead, limonite, copper and barite. By 1920, most of these mines and quarries had closed down and the area is now used for farming, forestry, tourism and outdoor recreation.
Student focus
  • Study the mine machinery in the image and explain, for example, what the large wheel and the wooden trough leading to it are being used for.
  • Why have lead, limonite, copper and barite become increasingly important? Describe what each mineral is used for today.
  • Carry out an internet search to discover whether the mine in this image was in the Glenderaterra Valley. Is the evidence conclusive?
Explore the nature of the geology of Blencathra on the BGS Geology of Britain Viewer. Current OS Explorer sheet: OL55 Click here to download the full resource The year of this image is not currently known, any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Ladram stacks, looking towards Sidmouth, Devon

Newton & Company, London, year not known The stack in the foreground of this image, called Ladram Rock, is one of a series of isolated stacks and stumps in the area (most of which only have local names). The cliffs here are composed of Sherwood Sandstone, but these particular stacks and stumps are composed of laminated Otter Sandstone. This Sandstone is especially hard and resistant to erosion, and contemporary photographs show limited signs of change. Ladram Bay attracts many tourists and is a popular place for families to visit. The Ladram Bay Holiday Park is sited on the slope down to the bay. Student focus
  • The stacks and stumps at Ladram have eroded unevenly – what could account for this? Visit Wessex Coast Geology to investigate whether stacks and stumps are common on this stretch of coastline.
  • Explore the Ladram Bay Holiday Park website to find out more about the history of the site. What was the site’s original use? Why did this change? Would you like to stay there? Why/Why not?
Current OS Explorer sheet: 115 Click here to download the full resource The year of this image is not currently known, any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Bristol from Brandon Hill Park

George Washington Wilson, c. 1896 Brandon Hill Park lies between the districts of Clifton and Hotwells overlooking Bristol, and is named after the Irish Saint Brendan. The Park, given to the council in 1174 by the Earl of Gloucester, was used for grazing until 1625 when it became a public open space. The lower slopes of the hill were developed during the 18th and 19th centuries. The prominent landmark, Cabot Tower, was opened at this location a year after this photograph was taken. Popular for public meetings and taking in the views, Brandon Hill Park retains its Victorian layout. Student focus
  • Why does the path curve across the grass rather than being straight? What does this tell you about the people who have visited the park in the past? Why was Cabot’s Tower built here?
  • Find a modern view of Bristol from Brandon Hill Park (e.g. Visit Bristol) and annotate a copy of this image with the buildings that can still be seen from this viewpoint.
Current OS Explorer sheet: OL155 Click here to download the full resource

Haymaking, Essex

Attributed to Fairgrieve, c.1930 This image shows haymaking on a farm in Essex. In the 1930s agriculture was labour-intensive because much of the work was carried out by hand. Here, several men are using pitchforks or similar tools to transfer the hay from a wagon onto a large hayrick or haystack. Hay was cut and dried in the fields before being transported in horse-drawn wagons to the farm yard. It was stored as stacks until it was required for cattle fodder during the winter months when feed was short. The tarpaulin spread out in the foreground will be used to cover the finished haystack and then tied down with ropes and weighted with heavy stones to keep water and air out. Some farms thatched their haystacks. Student focus
  • Prepare a PowerPoint presentation showing changes to agricultural practices from the early 19th century onwards. Use images of farm labourers from Great British Life and paintings (e.g. by John Constable) as a start point.
  • In Britain, as Thatchinginfo.com indicates, farmers built (and thatched/covered) different shapes and types of hayricks/stacks. On an outline map of Britain, mark and annotate areas with different rick building practices.
  • Think about the ways in which hay is stored on farms now, are modern storage methods more environmentally friendly than past ones? Why/why not?
Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Mousehole/Porthenys, Cornwall

Fairgrieve, c. 1930 The photograph shows the small harbour at Mousehole in Cornwall with the village clustered around it and the small port filled with mainly clinker built sailing boats at low tide. An islet called St Clement’s Isle lies 350 metres offshore. The picturesque nature of the village has had both positive and negative effects. Particularly in the summer it is overcrowded on most days with holidaymakers and tourists. Fishing for pilchards has always been important to this small village. Student focus
  • Visit Cornwall has information about Mousehole heritage walks on ‘Wrecks, lifesaving and lifeboats’ and ‘Village history’. Is the focus of the walks a positive thing for visitors to Mousehole? Why/Why not? What positive and negative effects might these walks have on the village itself?
  • In the past, pilchard oil lamps were used to light the cottages in Mousehole. What do you think pilchards caught today are used for? Give reasons for this change of use.
Current OS Explorer Sheet: 102 Click here to download the full resource

Paddle steamer on the River Clyde, Scotland

Fairgrieve, c. 1930s The paddle steamer in this image is probably travelling from Glasgow to Rothesay (and stopping at other towns en route) – a journey known locally as ‘going doon the watter’. The Clyde paddle steamers (PS) began sailing in August 1812 with a commercial service to Europe. By 1900 there were over 300 steamers, some of which operated until the early 1960s. This service was aimed at holiday makers taking people from Glasgow to Largs, Cambelltown and Inveraray, but as the demand grew Glasgow, Dunoon and Rothesay all became major resorts served by these steamers. The Clyde paddle steamers were used in the evacuation of Dunkirk during the Second World War, and the PS Waverley (built in 1946) still operates around the British coast. Student focus
  • Paddle steamers like these are still important – why?
  • Access Waverley Excursions to find out if the PS Waverley steams from a port near you. Plan your itinerary. How would you get there? Where would you board/disembark? What might you see?
  • Find out what other routes became available to enable holiday makers to get from Glasgow to Dunoon and Rothesay.
Current OS Explorer Sheet: 342 Click here to download the full resource

Dover Harbour, Kent

York & Son Photographers, 1893 The photograph shows the inner and outer harbours of Dover in 1893. Different types and sizes of ships are moored in the harbour: sailing ships, steam powered ships, some with a combination of steam and sail, and smaller boats. Sheltered from the sea, Dover Harbour is a point of entry to the UK for many people, along with another port linked with the Cinque Ports (see slides 5 and 8). This modern-day purpose-built ferry port now offers a number of crossings to locations within the EU. The warehouses clearly visible along the quay would be used to store supplies for ships and their crews. Student focus
  • In your opinion are sailing ships a more sustainable and economical alternative to modern engine-driven ships? What are the advantages and disadvantages of sail and engine driven ships?
  • Storage warehouses are now less common in port areas. Why might this change have occurred? Visit DoverBigLocal for innovative uses for old warehouses. What other ways could they be used?
Current OS Explorer Sheet: 138 Click here to download the full resource

Capstans on the shore, Deal, Kent

Photographer not known, c. 1930 The children in this image are looking at and discussing the capstans anchored to the shore at Deal in Kent (as well as at the photographer). Boatmen used capstans to haul their boats up beaches beyond the range of the tides. Traditionally, the boats on the Deal shoreline were locally-built ‘luggers’ – clinker-built boats with three masts. Deal, one of the Cinque Ports, is close to the notorious Goodwin Sands, which meant this stretch the coast was a place both for shelter and of danger for ships. Ships would wait off the coast for a ‘good wind’ and, during this time, the Deal boatmen would row out to provision the waiting crews. Student focus
  • Draw and annotate a diagram showing how capstans were powered in the late 19th century. Describe how capstans are powered now. An internet search will help you discover what happened to the Deal capstans.
  • Investigate the Cinque Ports website then, in your own words, explain the role of Deal and other ports in the south east played in military history.
  • Compare an historical image of Deal (e.g. Skardon’s World) with an image of the shoreline today (e.g. Kent News).
Current OS Explorer Sheet: 138 Click here to download the full resource The photographer is not currently known, any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Aberglaslyn Pass/Bwlch Aberglaslyn, Snowdonia

Photographer and year not known The Aberglaslyn Pass/Bwlch Glaslyn (‘aber’ means river mouth; ‘bwlch’ means pass) is a narrow gorge in Snowdonia (north Wales), and a popular tourist route. In this image, the road (A498/A4085) follows the bank of the Afon Glaslyn (River Glaslyn). At one time, the Afon Glaslyn – shown meandering through a relatively flat floodplain – was navigable by small boats. To the right by the road in the background, there is evidence that the Afon Glaslyn has undercut its bank. While the steep scree-covered slopes in the foreground show little evidence of vegetation, some of the less steep slopes are tree covered. Student focus
  • What types of land uses can you identify in the image? What type of associated jobs might you find in this area in the 1930s?
  • Find the Aberglaslyn Pass on the OS OL17 sheet and identify the place where the photographer stood. Study the map key and describe the different types of tourism that take place in the area now.
Current OS Explorer Sheet: OL17 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Policeman in Holborn, London

Fairgrieve, c. 1926 This image was taken at the junction of High Holborn and Southampton Row near the present-day Holborn underground station in London. The policeman standing in the road is on ‘point duty’; note the nature and quantity of the traffic he is directing. Nowadays the traffic at this junction is very busy. The large shop is typical for the 1920s: it is on a corner and has separate entrances for different departments. Often each department would sell specific goods under the ownership of one firm. The large windows have blinds, which protect the goods on display from the bright sunlight. Student focus
  • Use Google Maps to locate the junction, then access Street View to find the building in the image. Which architectural clues did you use?
  • Describe the main advantages for locating a shop on a corner. What evidence is there that the 1926 shop has only one floor of retail space? Carry out an internet search to discover more about what might have been sold here.
  • List six changes that have taken place in retail in towns and cities since 1926. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each one?
Current OS Explorer Sheet: 173 Click here to download the full resource

Crowborough Heath Sandstone Quarry, East Sussex

Photographer and year not known This is a relatively shallow, small quarry at Crowborough Heath in Sussex. Here the quarrymen are extracting chunks of stone using simple, non-motorised equipment. The massive, thick-bedded fine to medium grained quartz sandstone found here is sometimes called Tunbridge Wells Sandstone because Crowborough is 11 km from Royal Tunbridge Wells. Much of this area of the Weald is now a protected Area of Beauty Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) and ecological importance. AA Milne used it as the setting for Winnie the Pooh stories. Student focus
  • Describe how the equipment in the quarry (the wooden triangular structures are called shear legs) is being used. How do the quarrymen cut the sandstone? How do they transport it?
  • What kind of equipment would you expect to see in a modern quarry environment? (Carry out an internet search if necessary.)
  • Is the use of sandstone in construction a sustainable use? Think of its use compared with other materials used in construction.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 136 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Handfast Point and Old Harry Rocks, Dorset

SHR, 1912 Handfast Point and the Old Harry Rocks shown in this photograph feature in many geography textbooks as an example of the stages of erosion of a headland. This chalk headland, which formed with bands of flint about 66 million years ago, is being slowly eroded. The sea gradually works along the joints and bedding planes, where softer chalk meets harder bedrock, and enlarges them leaving behind stacks, wave-cut caves and notches in the base of the cliffs (sub-aerial weathering also plays a part in this process). Old Harry, a sea stack, is slowly being removed by these coastal erosion processes and sub-aerial weathering. Another stump – called Old Harry’s wife – disappeared in 1509. Student focus
  • Why has the cliff been eroded at these specific points and not others? Which area is most prone to erosion and why?
  • On a recent image of Old Harry Rocks, identify further changes. If none are visible, what does it tell you about the nature of this coast?
  • These kinds of cliffs, caves and stacks often attract tourists – see slide 2. Use Digimap to identify where other named features are located around the British coastline and the BGS Geology of Britain Viewer find out what type of rock they are made of.
Current OS Explorer sheet: OL15 Click here to download the full resource

Looe/Logh, South East Cornwall

Valentine & Sons series (JV), 1894 The photograph shows the town of Looe/Logh (‘logh’ means deep water inlet) in south east Cornwall. Originally, a small fishing village, Looe now attracts tourists and retirees. The breakwater protects both a small beach and the outlet to the River Looe. Some sailing boats are lying outside the harbour, and offshore, just visible on the left-hand side of the horizon, is Looe Island. The town has built up on both sides of a steep-sided valley. The two parts are linked by a bridge (not shown). Many of the houses are constructed of local stone although the more recent ones are made of brick. Looe town is crowded with small houses, shops, services and tourist facilities. Traffic congestion is a huge problem in Looe, especially in the tourist season. Student focus
  • Few of the inhabitants of Looe rely on fishing now, most work in tourism and some income comes from people who retire to the town. In your opinion, is this balance of economic activity good or bad for Looe?
  • Explore the Visit Looe website to discover how tourist traffic is managed, while making the town accessible to local residents and the emergency services. What problems might this solution cause?
Current OS Explorer sheet: 107 Click here to download the full resource

Borth/Y Borth beach, Ceredigion

Photographer and date not known Look carefully at this image of the small seaside resort of Borth/Y Borth and you can see the stumps of a submerged forest. This forest, which is visible at low tide, dates from 1500 BCE. In April 2019, more stumps were exposed by Storm Hannah. This stretch of coast line (Borth is situated 11 km north of Aberystwyth) is exposed and prone to erosion. In the image groynes have been installed to mitigate against sand migration and a rudimentary sea wall, constructed of wooden planks, was built to protect the sea-front houses. In 2011, a coastal protection scheme between Borth and Ynyslas (2 km to the north) was constructed. Student focus
  • Draw an outline plan of Borth sea front and beach area. Mark the different types of coastal protection and other features that are visible in this image and annotate them.
  • Produce a table listing the types of coastal protection measures that might be appropriate for this coast line and outline the costs and benefits of each one.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 213 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Crossing the Stile, Darley Dale, Derbyshire

Crossing the Stile, Darley Dale, Derbyshire Photographer not known, c1930 In this image two ladies, wearing their ‘Sunday best’, are crossing a stile in a dry stone wall in Darley Dale. This Dale lies within an area often referred to as the ‘White Peak’ because of its underlying geology. Fields in this part of the Peak District National Park are divided by walls made using the pale stone. Notice the ladies’ clothing, particularly their decorated hats. Perhaps they are on their way to church around May Day? Or attending a well dressing ceremony during August or September. Student focus
  • Think about the ladies – where do you think they are going? What clues are there in the image about the route they are using? Consider who may have built the stile the ladies are passing through and why.
  • Give three reasons why dry stone walls are so common in Britain. Use the BGS Geology of Britain Viewer to establish the type of rock in this image and/or for a dry stone wall in your area.
  • Use the well dressing website and the OS OL1 and OL24 sheets to investigate the extent of this form of celebration in Derbyshire. Why do you think these kinds of ceremonies are important in rural areas?
Current OS Explorer sheet: OL24 Click here to download the full resource The location of this image, and the identity of the photographer are not currently known - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Inverness/Inbhir Nis, Scottish Highlands

George Washington Wilson, 1904 This image shows Inverness/Inbhir Nis from its castle (‘inbhir’ means river mouth; ‘nis’ means headland or promontory). The city (designated in 2000) occupies both sides of the river. The River Ness flows through the Great Glen from Loch Ness, through the city and on into the Moray Firth. Two bridges over the River Ness are visible here, but one has been replaced and new ones built since this photograph was taken. Student focus
  • There are advantages and disadvantages to living in a city that is divided by a major river. List as many as you can.
  • Compare a recent photograph of Inverness (e.g. Scotland-Inverness) with this one. Identify the churches and other buildings that appear in both images.
  • Since this photograph was taken, one bridge has been replaced. Historic maps (try Digimap) will help you to identify which one. Use OS sheet 406 to identify how many bridges are there in total now.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 406 Click here to download the full resource

Ross-on-Wye/Rhosan ar Wy, Herefordshire

Photographer and date not known In the view of the river near Ross-on-Wye/Rhosan ar Wy, the Wye has doubled back on itself forming a horseshoe, which is in fact a huge meander. This is caused partly by the differential in rates of erosion and deposition. The outside bank of the river erodes quicker than the inside, as it does so the river deposits material on the inside bend. Eventually, the river will create a new channel and cut off the bend forming an ox-bow lake. The repetition of this process causes rivers to migrate down valleys over time. Student focus
  • The houses in the foreground have been built close to the meander – the Visit Ross on Wye town map indicates just how close. In your opinion would the town be in any danger as a result of this river process? How might the town protect itself?
  • Study the course of the River Wye on Digimap to identify any ox-bow lakes that have formed along it. Explain how these features show that the river has migrated down the valley over time.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 189 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

Flamborough Head, East Yorkshire

Wrench & Son, c. 1896 This view of one of the bays and cliffs at Flamborough Head in the East Riding of Yorkshire also takes in a number of associated coastal features. These include the wave-cut platform, a bay-head beach, cliffs, wave-cut notches, stacks and stumps, and geos. If you look closely, you can see how different parts of the cliff has been eroded at different rates. This is because Flamborough cliffs are composed of Chalk (Limestone), which is a hard, but well-jointed rock, on which a layer of material called glacial till lies. This glacial till (or boulder clay) is much easier to erode. Student focus
  • Estimate the different slope angles for the chalk and the boulder clay and describe how these materials are eroded.
  • Draw a sketch map of the photograph and mark on it as many features as you can (refer to OS sheet 301 if necessary).
Current OS Explorer sheet: 301 Click here to download the full resource

Ben Cruachan/Cruachna Beinne, Argyll & Bute

Fairgrieve, c. 1930s This photograph shows two climbers making their way up a partially snow-covered ridge towards the peak of Ben Cruachan/Cruachna Beinne. At 1126m, Ben Cruachan is the highest point in Argyle & Bute, in a ring of glaciated peaks known as the ‘Cruachan Horseshoe’. The horseshoe surrounds the present-day Cruachan dam and pumped storage scheme and includes several other Scottish ‘Munros’. This mountain landscape has very little soil or vegetation, and there are a number of ‘frost pockets’. Like most mountains, Ben Cruachan is subject to increased erosion by rock climbers and walkers. Student focus
  • What other glacial features might you expect to see in this landscape? List them together with short descriptions.
  • Use the OS Explorer sheet 377 to plan a route to explore the Cruachan Horseshoe and the Cruachan pumped storage scheme.
  • Explore more about the Scottish Munros (Visit Scotland) and/or how frost pockets form.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 377 Click here to download the full resource

Staithes, North Yorkshire

George Washington Wilson, c.1896 The photograph shows the village of Staithes, which has a sheltered harbour bounded by high cliffs and two long breakwaters (not seen on the photograph). This traditional fishing village lies the border of two boroughs. The area to the north (the left of the image) of Staithes Beck, Cowbar, is in Redcar and Cleveland; while the main part of Staithes (to the south of the Beck, right of the image) is in the borough of Scarborough. Staithes Beck, which is crossed by a footbridge, is fed by Easington and Roxby becks. A few small fishing boats can be seen tied up along the Beck. Alum, mined at Boulby Cliff (2.5 km to the north), was originally transported to Staithes harbour for export. The surrounding geology of Lias was formed during the Jurassic Period, and, in the 1900s, a fossil of a seagoing dinosaur was found between Staithes and Port Mulgrave. Student focus
  • Find out what Alum was/is used for. Is this use sustainable? Why/Why not?
  • The fossil of a seagoing dinosaur was found near Staithes, and visitors to the area often search for fossils in the cliffs. Carry out an internet search to discover what other kinds of fossils have been found in the area and where.
Current OS Explorer sheet: OL27 Click here to download the full resource

Deep Cow Gulch and Île Agois, Jersey

Flatters & Garnett Collection, c.1899 The photograph shows Deep Cow Gulch and the Île Agois, which lies off the north coast of Jersey. It is not obvious from this image, but the stack (or Île) on the left is in the process of isolating from the mainland on the right and is currently connected by a narrow stone bridge. The stack was formed out of granite and large rocks can be seen on the valley floor. Two people stand at different distances from the photographer to give us some idea of the scale of this massive feature. Student focus
  • Prepare a PowerPoint presentation explaining the formation of this feature include diagrams and/or images. Why is Deep Cow Gulch so narrow with such steep sides?
  • The Île Agois is no longer accessible and there is no direct access to the stack. Why might people have been prohibited from visiting the stack?
Click here to download the full resource

Tilbury Docks, Essex

Fairgrieve, c. 1930 Tilbury is a deep water dock on the north bank of the Thames near to the river’s mouth in Essex. It is now the major port in London. In the foreground of this photograph a number of large barges, which have been used to bring goods down the Thames to Tilbury Docks, are lined up ready to transfer their cargo. Dock-side sheds and cranes line the quayside. The Orient Lines ship tied up alongside the quay, was one of five that transported both goods and passengers between Britain and Australia in the early to mid-20th century. They were the forerunners of today’s cruise ships. Student focus
  • Produce a timeline to illustrate the changes to the docks at Tilbury – Forth Ports is a good start point.
  • Map the countries of origin/destination of goods transported by an Orient Line ship and that of a current cargo ship. Do any patterns emerge?
  • Describe how ports like Tilbury handle/d goods in the 1930s and now. To what extent has this system transformed the movement of goods by sea? What have the key advantages been? Which recent event(s) have revealed vulnerabilities in this system?
Current OS Explorer sheet: 163 Click here to download the full resource

Dalveen Pass, Lowther Hills, Dumfriesshire

Fairgrieve, c.1930s The Dalveen Pass cuts through the Lowther Hills connecting Nitherdale and Dumfriesshire with Clydesdale in Lanarkshire. The Hills form the watershed between the Clyde and Solway rivers. Parts of this 24-km long route was once a Roman road, now the Pass is followed by the A702. Here, the valley has steep sides and a flat floor with a stream flowing through it. On the right of the image there is evidence of erosion, and on the left some scree (or alluvial slip-off slopes) are visible. Also the gash eroded into the mountain on the right-hand side has an outflow fan (or deltaic) feature. Student focus
  • What evidence is there that this area of the Pass is tidal?
  • Draw a sketch of the photograph, mark on and label the two distinct areas. Draw in the stream and indicate its meandering nature.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 313 Click here to download the full resource

Sgùrr nan Gillean/Scuir-Na-Gillean, Isle of Skye

George Washington Wilson, 1877/1904 The photograph shows Sgùrr nan Gillean/Scuir-na-Gillean – a peak in the Black Cuillin range on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. At 966.1 m (3170 ft), Sgùrr nan Gillean is one of eleven Munros in the range. Sgùrr nan Gillean has a typical glaciated triangular form, and a rocky river bed can be seen in the foreground. The Cuillin Ridge is the remains of the roots of an early Palaeogene volcanic centre composed of gabbros and granites. The area is very popular with climbers. Student focus
  • The Cuillins are some of the oldest rocks in Britain – create a fact file about the Cuillin range. The BGS Geology of Britain Viewer is a good start point.
  • Sketch the photograph and mark the four distinct areas on it. Add annotations with the details of each area and say how they differ.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 411 Click here to download the full resource

Stornoway/Steòrnabhagh cottage, Western Isles

Photographer and year not known This small cottage near Stornoway/Steòrnabhagh in the Western Isles, Scotland, is a typical crofters’ house. The cottage is constructed of stone, has a chimney at each end and a thickly thatched roof. There are two larger windows facing the track/road and a smaller one at the side in the gable end. Inside there would have been two main rooms downstairs and one smaller room in the roof space. To the left of the cottage a stack of peat has been left to dry. Dried peat is still an important fuel in remote areas of Britain, it is used to heat homes and for cooking. Student focus
  • What type of work people and communities living in these areas do?
  • Between Islands illustrates how peat is cut, turned and left to dry before it can be used. In your opinion is the use of peat as a fuel sustainable? Why/Why not?
  • Evaluate the projects on Community Energy Scotland and decide which one is most environmentally-friendly and/or more sustainable. Give reasons for your choice.
Current OS Explorer sheet: 459 Click here to download the full resource The origin of this image and photographer are not known currently - any information would be gratefully received, including an idea of location relative to the centre of Stornoway. Please email info@geography.org.uk.

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